Transcriptomics: A Gateway to Understanding Diseases – Part 2
Dear Longevity Insider,
More on transcriptomics and how it's applied in modern medicine...
- Stem Cell and Cancer Research: Intratumor heterogeneity is a challenge to the treatment of cancer as it shows therapeutic resistance and undergoes metastasis. (Spread of cancer) Transcriptomics helps in the identification of such types of aspects in cancer research. A highly heterogeneous disease, Cancer, is driven by molecular aberrations at the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, and protein levels.
Transcriptomics combined with proteomics is one of the most promising approaches for the investigation of stem cell biology. Stem cells have the property of self-renewal and differentiation and so the mechanisms that regulate these processes are widely studied. Stem cell studies using transcriptomics will promote the clinical applications of stem cells.
- Tissue-Specific Gene Expression Studies: Dysregulation of transcription in multiple tissues is responsible for complex diseases. Tissue-specific gene expression can provide information about the health of an individual. Different gene tissue-specific transcription levels can be predicted from the blood transcriptome of an individual. Prediction of the disease state for different complex disorders which include hypertension and type 2 diabetes can be done from tissue-specific expression inferred from blood transcriptome.
- Embryogenesis and In-vitro Fertilization: The development of an embryo after fertilization of sperm with egg is called Embryogenesis. In vitro is the artificial technique for producing offspring. In In-vitro fertilization, mRNA is injected into the zygote and so transcriptomics is involved in this process.
- Characterization of non-coding RNAs: Non-coding RNAs are those molecules that are not translated into proteins. Non-coding RNAs have been found in various biological and pathological processes. Transcriptomics is used to find the role of these RNAs in any disease.
- Detection of Virulent and Pathogenic Strains present in a sample: Transcriptomics is used for the detection of virulent strain in the sample. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is used for the detection of multiple viruses simultaneously. Unknown viruses can be detected using transcriptomics and it is fast.
- Detection of Transposable Elements in Genome: The sequence of DNA that can change its position within the genome is called a transposable element. It can create or reverse mutations and can also alter the cell genome’s size. Transcriptomics is used for the detection of transposable elements in the genome.
- To produce Epigenetic Alterations: Epigenetics is the inherited genetic alterations that are not the result of changes in DNA sequence. At the level of transcription, genetic expression is influenced by epigenetic processes.
- Role in Precision Medicine: In transcriptomics, it is studied how living organisms and their transcriptomes respond to diseases and environmental factors. The study of transcriptomes is very important in discovering the pathways of disease and for the development of effective drugs. The difference in the same disease has been studied in different people at the genomic level. In the early stage of disease, precision medicine can play a preventive and predictive role.
- Pharmacogenomics: The effects of genetic differences on drug metabolism are studied in Pharmacogenomics. It is one of the important applications of Transcriptomics. Due to genetic differences, different individuals respond differently to the drug. According to the genotype of the person most appropriate dosage is prescribed to the patient. Transcriptomics helps in Pharmacogenomics studies and processes.
- Role in Disease Determinants and Causes: Screening of diseases and their causes can be determined using transcriptomics. This is of great use as this helps in the detection of complex diseases like breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and cardiovascular diseases.
Future of Healthcare
Transcriptomics is one of the fields undergoing massive research as researchers aim to understand better how changes in transcriptional activity can influence disease. In transcriptomics, the focus is on the mRNA of the gene expression. Causes of genetic disorders can be identified using transcriptomics. RNA analysis helps in the determination of disease and treatment markers and also the response of the genome to different drugs for treatment purposes.
And it comes taking a closer look at health on a cellular level, here is my most prized research to date.
To your longevity,
Anil Bajnath MD
CEO/Founder, Institute for Human Optimization
Chief Medical Officer, Longevity Insider HQ